Reports

  • Ready for 55%. A guide to financing the energy transition from 2021

    It’s PLN 560 billion [EUR 124 bln]. This is the amount Poland can allocate for the energy transition and phaseout of coal thanks to EU membership. This is a historic opportunity to shift the Polish economy—including the energy sector—to the low-carbon track and develop new industries. Although last year the Polish government declared the intention to pursue climate neutrality in line with EU policy, Poland’s decision-makers are anxious that the country will not be able to handle the challenge of decarbonisation. At the same time, the government’s relations with EU institutions are deteriorating, making talks about the EU funds difficult. So then, what resources are at stake?

    9.11.2021
  • Microinstallations on a turning point | How to secure the future of distributed energy in Poland?

    In recent years, over 600,000 households and businesses have invested in their own solar installations, and approximately 35,000 jobs have been created in companies offering services in this segment. This is the biggest, albeit unplanned, success of the Law and Justice government in the energy sector. However, further expansion of micro-installations in Poland is questionable - the government is planning changes in the rules governing this dynamically developing energy sector. This is an operation on a living organism, therefore surgical precision is needed in introducing changes - a transparent process, clear intentions and time that will allow the newly established sector and energy companies to prepare for the transition.

    21.10.2021
  • The district heating company of the future

    Heat in Poland becomes more expensive. This is a result of an outdated business model in district heating, which rewards the company for as much heat production as possible and does not encourage to modernize the infrastructure. Meanwhile, consumers want to pay as little as possible for energy and heat. One of the key elements of the game for lower bills and lower CO2 emissions is becoming energy efficiency of heating systems and buildings. This completely changes the market conditions in which heating companies have to find themselves. If we do not want them to collapse - it is necessary to implement a new business model in district heating. Forum Energii writes about how it could look like in its latest report.

    16.9.2021
  • Visegrad Electromobility | State, perspectives and challenges

    Transport accounts for the largest share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union and is the only sector in which emissions have been increasing in recent years. The goal of climate neutrality and the increased reduction target for 2030 will not be achievable without a revolution in transport, as confirmed by the ‘Fit for 55’ package published by the European Commission. Given the years of a lack of effective policies in this area in the Visegrad countries, implementing appropriate measures to reduce emissions from transport becomes an urgent challenge. The hope is in electrification, especially of passenger cars.

    22.7.2021
  • The cost of carbon-free buildings and transport: the EU’s plans and Poland's challenges

    Work on the European Green Deal is accelerating. The main tool to achieve the new targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the EU will be the Fit for 55 package. Among its key elements is support for reducing CO2 emissions from buildings and transport. For Poland, this debate will be uncomfortable because over the course of three decades, not only has pollution not decreased but it has increased considerably in transport. This results in terrible air quality in Poland. Catching up, which is necessary for both climate reasons and the modernisation of outdated infrastructure and improvement of air quality, will be a challenge. The introduction of emission charges is intended to help. In its latest study, Forum Energii proposes measures to internalise the external costs of emissions in a way that is smooth, gradual, and socially acceptable.

    2.7.2021
  • Green Gases | Biomethane and hydrogen in Poland

    Over the next decades, the way Europe generates energy will change significantly. The goal of achieving climate neutrality means fossil fuels will be replaced by renewable energy sources within 30 years. Playing a key role will be biomethane and green hydrogen produced from RES—green gases—the development of which should already be spearheaded Poland. It is necessary to start planning the rational use of these gases in the economy because there probably will not be enough for everyone, and some sectors will be easier and cheaper to decarbonise through electrification. Poland is already working on setting the framework for their use in various sectors of the economy. The latest report by Forum Energii may help in preparing the strategy.

    25.6.2021
  • Dynamic and just | Network tariff design for the future

    It is non-elastic, inefficient, unsuited to the changing realities of the energy market and the accelerating energy transition. The Polish model of network tariffs, i.e. the system of payments for delivering electricity to consumers, must be changed. In its latest report, Forum Energii, together with the Regulatory Assistance Project, analyses the principles that need to be considered when designing a new approach to tariffs.

    6.5.2021
  • Energy transition in Poland | 2021 Edition

    The production of electricity from coal in Poland is decreasing. For the first time in the country’s history, in 2020 coal’s share in the generation mix dropped below 70%. Renewable sources have slowly started to play a more important role in the mix, as well as gas. In the midst of the pandemic, domestic production has fallen faster than demand, and this gap is filled by energy imports. Poland remains the most expensive electricity market in the region.

    17.3.2021
  • Heat electrification in Poland | The path to clean heat

    Despite the government's declarations, progress in improving air quality in Poland has been poor. The rate of modernisation of buildings is slow, and public funds continue to support the replacement of old coal boilers with other coal-fired options, which other European countries have phased out. Meanwhile, a huge stream of European money will be flowing towards 'clean heat' in the coming years. In the newest analysis from the Forum Energii, we explain why it is worth betting on electrification of heating, identify which technologies have a future, and explore how this will affect the energy system.  

    26.1.2021
  • How Poland can reach higher GHG emission reduction targets by 2030

    At least 55%—this is the reductions target proposed by the European Commission for greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2030. There is no turning back from increasingly demanding climate policy. In its latest analysis, Forum Energii shows how Poland can meet this policy.

    4.12.2020
  • How to fill the coal gap? 43% RES by 2030?

    Poland has started phasing out coal. But while production is decreasing, CO2 emission allowances are becoming increasingly expensive. After 2025, when public support for outdated coal blocks runs out, energy companies will want to shut them down. With a decade, at least 10 GW of power may be lost from the Polish power system. How can this gap be filled?

    26.10.2020
  • Modernising the European lignite triangle

    In a new study, Agora Energiewende and Forum Energii analyse the opportunity for a phase out from lignite and the effects this would have in the power sector in Poland, Czech Republic, and Germany by 2032. The study finds that an accelerated phase out is technically and economically feasible if coordinated among the three countries – provided, lignite is being substituted by renewable energy sources.

    24.6.2020
  • Poland: climate neutrality by 2050. Electrification and sector coupling

    Electrification sets the direction of inevitable changes in many areas of our lives, including transport and heating. This direction will force a closer cooperation of various sectors of the economy with the future, completely different from today's power system. The integration of three industries — transportation, heat, and power generation— is the new concept for the operation of the entire energy sector. What can it look like in 2050? How will the necessary changes bring Poland closer to the goal of climate neutrality? Forum Energii in the new analysis convinces that a good strategy of sector coupling is a benefit for the Polish economy and society.      

    19.6.2020
  • Renewables in heating

    Heating and all of us in Poland have a problem. In domestic heating we rely on technologies from the 50s and 60s of the last century. In winter we have the worst quality air in the European Union. The society bears the enormous health costs related to air pollution - 120 billion PLN annually. We use primarily coal, which we are running out of, and we need to cover the costs of CO2 emission allowances. What next? Does coronavirus mean the end of dreams about clean air and the end of investments in modern technologies? Quite the opposite. Right now we should be looking at renewables.

    13.5.2020
  • Energy Boost for Poland

    "Energy Boost for Poland" - a package for the economy prepared by the Forum Energii and Polish Confederation Lewiatan. Forum Energii and the Confederation Lewiatan call for the adoption of the "Energy Boost for Poland" package, which aims to mobilise available public and private funds for the Polish energy modernization. The implementation of the "Energy Boost for Poland" will stimulate investments worth over PLN 580 billion, which will create 240 thousand new jobs. Investments in the energy sector should be an element of the strategy for overcoming the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic.        

    11.5.2020
  • Anti-smog roadmap for Żywiec | Clean heat by 2030

    The challenge of fighting the coronavirus and the upcoming spring are distracting public attention from the problem of smog. But it will not disappear and as the boomerang will return in a few months with the start of the heating season. Especially to the towns and cities - where, like in Żywiec, more than 80% of heating energy comes from coal. In the latest report of the Forum Energii Anti-Smog Roadmap for Żywiec. Clean heat by 2030." we indicate what steps should be taken to get rid of smog by 2030. Now the report is available only in Polish, but English version will be published soon.    

    21.4.2020
  • Energy transition in Poland | 2020 Edition

    Electricity production from coal is decreasing, electricity imports are increasing; the importance of gas in the energy mix continues to grow, and renewable energy sources also play a more important role in the system. These are the key conclusions of the Forum's recent study "Energy transition in Poland". This is the third edition of the report, which presents key data on the state of the Polish energy sector and its changes.    

    11.3.2020
  • Heating in Poland | 2019 edition

    While the battle for new climate targets for 2050 is under way in Brussels, many Polish cities and villages are already struggling with smog. Forum Energii gathered the most important data on heating in order to highlight the importance of heating, which is treated as a poor cousin of the energy sector. 

    16.12.2019
  • How to reach an agreement with Brussels on clean heat financing in Poland

    The entire heating sector in Poland, both in district heating systems and individually heated houses, consumes as much as 38% of this fuel. Therefore, it is easy to calculate the potential contribution of the heating transition to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The changes will benefit both the climate and citizens. Today in Brussels, orum Energii presents the Clean Heat 2030 report and demonstrates how improving air quality can help to save the climate.  

    13.11.2019
  • Capacity market for review | Analysis of the results of three auctions

    The three capacity auctions for 2021-2023 are behind us. What is the result? Has it been possible to encourage manufacturers to make new investments? Does the capacity market support diversification of the mix? How much does the capacity market cost? And finally, do the new EU regulations concerning emission standards mean the end of the capacity market in Poland?

    22.10.2019
  • From the Loire to the Vistula River | Three steps in planning the energy transition

    Polish-French relations have become a bit difficult lately. When President Macron said in an interview that the Paris climate protesters should move to Warsaw because it is Poland that is blocking European climate ambitions, Poland was in turmoil. Leaving aside the emotions, it is worth looking at how the French are coping with the energy transformation. This is what the new analysis of the Forum Energii is about.

    30.9.2019
  • Small steps to big changes | Impact of the "Clean Energy..." package on power sector

    We are starting to implement new EU energy regulations. Will the "Clean energy for all Europeans" package heal the Polish energy sector and give it an impulse for development? How can the energy consumer benefit from the changes? In Forum Energii's report "Small steps to big changes", we analyse the provisions of the Package and their consequences for Poland. 

    12.9.2019
  • Locational market in Poland. Security of supply, costs and the impact on the energy transition

    In the latest report Locational market in Poland. Security of supply, costs and impact on the energy transition, Forum Energii recommends changes on the energy market in Poland. It is a response to the emerging problems of the Polish energy transformation - high prices, ageing infrastructure, dominant share of coal. As an example, it presents the functioning of the electricity markets in the United States.

    4.7.2019
  • Clean heat 2030 | Strategy for heating

    In the report "Clean Heat 2030. Strategy for heating" Forum Energii examined how to make heating no longer a source of smog in Poland by 2030 in a cost-effective and socially acceptable way. According to the analysis, health costs of pollutants can be reduced by 50% within a decade and dust emissions from individual heating by 91%. At the same time, CO2 emissions from heating will fall by 30%. 

    17.4.2019
  • Energy transition in Poland | Edition 2019

    Growing imports of gas, coal and electricity. Increasing importance of gas in the energy mix and stagnation in RES. Increase in greenhouse gas emissions. These are the most important conclusions from this year's edition of the report "Energy Transition in Poland" prepared by the Forum Energii. Full report in English will be available soon. 

    9.4.2019
  • Flexibility of the Polish power system | Diagnosis, potential, solutions

    Flexibility of the power system means its ability to maintain uninterrupted operation under conditions of rapid and huge fluctuations in electricity consumption generation. It is an inherent part of the system design and control of its operation. In the analysis, Forum Energii puts forward solutions supporting the improvement of  the national power system flexibility. In addition to reducing the costs of the power sector and the improvement in quality and reliability of the electricity supply, their objective is to reduce emissions by the power sector.    

    12.2.2019
  • Good heating practices from Denmark and Germany. Conclusions for Poland

    Currently Poland faces a choice of long-term action plan in heating. As part of the Clean Heat project Forum Energii took a deep insight into experiences of Denmark and Germany, which significantly modernized their heat supply systems and improved air quality at the same time.

    23.1.2019
  • COP24 - what next with the climate policy in the EU?

    The practical impact of the climate summit agreements on EU and Polish policy is rarely appreciated. Meanwhile, climate policy will be an important point of reference in discussions on integrated national plans, national long-term strategies, or when setting the financial framework for 2021-2027. What are the conclusions of COP24 and, above all, what to expect this year?

    22.1.2019
  • Why compensations of power prices can cause more harm than good

    This is the first time such an unexpected turn of events has occurred in the energy sector. The government lost control of the strategic economy sector and seems surprised with the increase in prices and rising import of coal, gas and electricity. This unexpected situation has led to huge astonishment at a time when elections are imminent. 

    21.1.2019
  • Poland's Energy Policy 2040 in the spotlight

    Probable delays of the nuclear energy project, insufficient attention to energy costs and the risk of non-compliance with EU climate and energy targets – these are some of the comments of Forum Energii on the draft Poland’s Energy Policy.

    15.1.2019
  • Offshore energy | Downwind or upwind?

    Offshore can become a Polish specialty. It can be a source of cheap, clean energy and help to improve energy security. Implementation of this technology is possible if only government decision is taken. It is also important to speed up the process of obtaining permissions by investors and reduce investment costs.

    28.11.2018
  • How do we deal with summer peaks? Changes after the crisis in 2015

    Will photovoltaics save us from the blackout? Summer peaks still remain a challenge, although over three years have passed, since the crisis in 2015 where the industrial consumers were faced with limitations in electricity supply. In October, Minister of Energy admitted that 2 GW of PV could help Poland to avoid blackout in the future. It has been known for many years. Forum Energii presents its assessment of changes that have been introduced to the energy system to avoid similar situations in the future.

    25.10.2018
  • COP24 in Katowice | Manual

    COP24 - the climate summit in Katowice will be the largest gathering in the world under the auspices of the United Nations this year. The Forum Energii has developed the Manual, which allows its users to orientate in the international negotiations on climate. It contains set of tips on how to get involved in the process, how to positively influence the negotiations and build the image of Poland. 

    10.7.2018
  • Energy transition in Poland | Edition 2018

    Poland still has the least diversified mix of energy sources in the EU. However, we have been observing a decline in the share of coal in favor of gas and RES. This is, to a small extent, associated with a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions.   

    10.7.2018
  • Risk preparedness in an integrated European electricity market

    An integrated European electricity market will benefit consumers through lower prices, more cost-effective integration of renewable resources, and improved system reliability. A central question often asked in the context of the IEM is: can Poland rely on resources from neighbouring countries in a crisis situation? Is it safe to integrate market when national transmission system operators (TSOs) are responsible for managing energy systems in Europe.

    2.7.2018
  • Integrating Variable Renewables in Poland | Eight points on integrating variable renewable energy to the Polish power system

    The Polish energy mix is changing. While absolute figures still show a rather small share of variable renewables in the generation mix, these will play a growing role in the future. The study of Forum Energii presents eight main areas of action that facilitate the further integration of the renewables in the specific context of a changing Polish power system.   

    7.12.2017
  • Heating transformation 2030 | Small district heating systems

    87.5% (463 out of 529) of all district heating systems in Poland do not have the status of efficient systems. They must change this if they want to maintain access to public aid in the future and continue to provide Poles with heat at a reasonable price. 

    23.11.2017
  • The last bell for district heating in Poland

    District heating in Poland urgently needs to be modernised. Negotiating transitional periods for EU legislation has so far allowed difficult decisions to be postponed. However, the deadlines are running. A comprehensive review of district heating systems is necessary.

    24.10.2017
  • Polish energy sector 2050 | 4 scenarios

    What will be the result if Poland keeps its energy mix based on coal, introduces nuclear power or promotes renewables? Forum Energii analysed four different scenarios for the development of the Polish energy sector over the next 30 years. Report presents the economic, social and environmental implications of their imple­mentation.  

    22.9.2017
  • Flex-E | How to develop the DSR potential in Poland and reduce the costs of the energy system

    The Polish energy sector is entering a new phase of transformation. Planned integration of industry into the the support for energy security offers a chance to reduce by at least 1200 MW peak demand for electricity in Poland during periods of critical load od Polish Power System. this is what results from the analysis of the national potential of DSR services prepared by Forum Energii.

    27.3.2017
  • Options for integration of the Polish energy market within the European Union

    Forum Energii examined how the integration of the energy market, one of the priorities of the European Union, will affect wholesale electricity prices in Poland. Depending on the option to integrate markets (with which country the merger takes place and what is its capacity), the wholesale price of electricity in Poland may fall by up to 5%, i.e. by about PLN 8 per MWh.

    21.3.2017
  • How to ensure that the consumer improves the security of the energy system and benefits from it?

    Ordinary Kowalski can improve the security of the energy system and at the same time save money. It is enough to change the energy tariffs and provide up-to-date information on how much electricity we use. In winter, the power system can be offloaded by 200MW. The annual costs of households could fall by as much as 160 PLN.

    1.2.2017
  • Ensuring reliability of the power system and capacity mechanisms

    A stable and reliable supply of energy is the foundation of national energy security, yet it should not burden end users with excessive costs. On the one hand, it is important to keep electricity prices low, as they are the driving force behind economic development and provide opportunities for industrial development. On the other hand, wholesale energy prices should be sufficient to maintain the generating fleet. Since wholesale electricity prices fell to the lowest level in years, concerns have arisen over ensuring an adequate level of capacity and securing stable power system operations in Poland.

    28.10.2016
  • Revenues from ETS auctioning as source of financing for low-emission modernization in Poland

    Revenues from auctioning of the national pool of ETS allowances may become the major source of financing for low-emission modernization of energy sector in the coming decade (2021-2030).

    8.6.2016
  • Polish power sector riding on the wave of megatrends

    Megatrends are major and permanent changes of social, economic, technological or political nature that affect societies, governments, and economies of particular countries. They form slowly but when accelerated, they are irreversible. Together with experts, we have identified the most important megatrends in the European energy sector that are affecting Poland. 

    27.1.2016
  • Elements of new market design for Poland

    Both the European power sector at large and the Polish power sector in particular find themselves at a pivotal moment. Power systems are in transition, driven by commitments to continuing emissions reductions, growing penetration of renewables, and the need to provide affordable and reliable power. 

    17.12.2015
  • Efficient use of Modernization Fund

    On October 24, 2014, the European Council established the Modernization Fund (MF) for years 2021–2030 supplied with revenue from the sale of 2% of the total pool of CO2 emission allowances. The instrument is to support the modernization of power system and the improvement of energy efficiency in EU Member States, where GDP per capita in 2013 was lower than 60% of EU average (in nominal terms). 

    25.5.2015
  • Capacity market arrangements in Great Britain - lessons learnt for Poland

    In 2014, the UK government introduced legal provisions for a capacity market in Great Britain. Many countries – including Poland – have since then followed the developments on the island. FAE describes the power market in Great Britain as well as measures to raise its security of supply. It also compares the volume of Great Britain’s capacity reserve with that of Poland. The goal of the project was to analyse the results of the capacity auction in Great Britain in December 2014 and to draw possible lessons for Poland in view of the special situation of the Polish power sector. 

    6.4.2015
  • Risk of capacity shortage in the Polish electricity system up to 2020

    To what extent electricity shortages can be expected in the years 2016/2017? How will the reserves in the power system develop? The reserves in Poland are still relatively high, they were in 2013 at about 13 percent of the annual peak load. In 2018, the reserves will decline to about 8 percent. Assuming the so-called cold reserve, which was introduced in 2014, the reserve capacity, however, is at 11 percent in 2017. According to the provision of new generation capacity in the years 2019/2020 the reserve will increase to approximately 18 percent.

    19.12.2014
  • Electricity and industrial competitiveness

    Industrial competitiveness is at the centre of the Polish debate about the future (and the logic) of climate and energy policy. There is a widely held opinion that low prices are the most important condition for a thriving industry. 

    19.12.2014